Dressed to the nines in gentlemen's clothing, Vesta Tilley (nee Matilda Alice Victoria Powers) became the queen of British music halls. Born to music hall performing parents, Tilley's stage experience began when she was barely out of diapers. Soon after, little Tilly realized she enjoyed expressing herself on stage more in men's clothes than restrictive Gilded Age women's styles.
Tilley's male impersonation began the signature of her entertainment success. And she was anything but sloppy about it. A diligent student of masculine movement and style, Tilley embodied a host of male characters during her career, particularly excelling at foppish playboy caricatures. In doing so, Tilley padded her body in a way to present a male-looking physique, as opposed to other contemporary male impersonators who intentionally accentuated feminine curves underneath male clothes as their gimmick.
Gents in the audience took fashion tips from her fastidious on-stage style. For the ladies watching, Tilley's satirical exaggerations of male habits and hangups equally delighted. That balance made the act safe for turn-of-the-centuries audiences, as Allison Neal explains: "By showing women an ideal of maleness that was desirable yet unobtainable, Tilley offered a safe option to many of the female audience members because her act relied solely on the idea of fantasy rather than any actual lived reality."
But when singing her famous ditties like "The Piccadilly Johnny with the Little Glass Eye," Tilley went full soprano, not attempting to disguise her voice. Tilley also reserved her gender-bending exclusively for the stage. Offstage, she donned women's clothing and married her manager Walter de Frece.
Tilley became such a beloved male persona that by the early 20th century, her World War I-themed songs inspired scores of young men to join the military. As a result, she became known as England's Greatest Recruiting Sergeant. In 1920, she retired and got a fancy name upgrade to Lady de Frece upon her husband's knighthood. Other musical hall and vaudevillian male impersonators like Hetty King and Ella Shields followed in her wake, but Tilley was the handsomest of them all.