The Trouble With Thyroids

Thyroid disorders are eight times more likely to affect women. Cristen and Caroline break down how thyroids function -- and malfunction -- and why these "meat butterflies" are such a female pain in the neck.

Episode sources:

"Thyroid Diseases" by MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

"Hyperthyroidism." Updated Nov. 04, 2011. WebMD.

"Hypothyroidism." Updated July 16, 2010. WebMD.

"Graves' disease" by Mayo Clinic Staff. July 07, 2011. Mayo Clinic.

"Hashimoto's disease" by Mayo Clinic Staff. Jan. 02, 2014. Mayo Clinic.

"Women Suffer from Thyroid Disease More Than Men" by Jennifer Wider. Jan. 13, 2005. Society for Women's Health Research.

"Anxiety Disorder or Hyperthyroidism?" by Michael J. Formica. Dec. 12, 2011. Psychology Today.

"Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy." 2012. The American Thyroid Association.

"The Truth About the Thyroid" by John Hastings. January 2009. Oprah Magazine.

Academic Insights:

"Worldwide Increasing Incidence of Thyroid Cancer -- Update on Epidemiology and Risk Factors" by Gabriella Pellegriti et al. 2013. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology.

"The association between depression and thyroid disorders in a regionally representative Canadian sample" by Esme Fuller-Thomson, Jasmik Saini and Sarah Brennenstuhl. March 2012. Health & Medicine.

"Serum TSH, T4, and Thyroid Antibodies in the United States Population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHAES III)" by Joseph G. Hollowell et al. July 02, 2013. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

"Gender is an age-specific effect modifier for papillary cancers of the thyroid gland" by Briseis A. Kilfoy et al. April 2009.

"Women with bipolar disorder -- Findings from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample" by Mary C. Biehar et al. 1998. Psychopharmacology Bulletin.

"Thyroid autoimmunity and female gender" by Chiovato, L. et al. 1993. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. European PubMed Central.;jsessionid=KzLP4tGk5NQVhkNzEi1s.0

"Is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis a Risk Factor for Papillary Thyroid Cancer?" by Daniel Repplinger et al. November 2008. Journal of Surgical Research.

Topics in this Podcast: women's health, Medicine, thyroid, best of 2014 health