Why do men have nipples?

Why haven't males evolved to not have nipples? Many newborns lactate "witches milk" soon after birth. Can men lactate? Listen in as Cristen and Caroline tackle these questions and more in this episode.

Episode sources:

"Are the men of the African Aka tribe the best fathers in the world?" by Joanna Moorhead. The Guardian. June 15, 2005. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2005/jun/15/childrensservices.familyandrelationships

"Father's Milk" by Jared Diamond. Discover. Feb. 01, 1995. http://discovermagazine.com/1995/feb/fathersmilk468

"Galactorrhea." Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/galactorrhea/DS00761/DSECTION=causes

"Man Milk" by Michael Thomson. Slate. May 25, 2011. http://www.slate.com/id/2295405/pagenum/all/#p2

"Strange but True: Males Can Lactate" by Nikhil Swaminathan. Scientific American. Sept. 06, 2007. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=strange-but-true-males-can-lactate

"What is breast cancer in men?" American Cancer Society. http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/BreastCancerinMen/DetailedGuide/breast-cancer-in-men-what-is-breast-cancer-in-men

"Why do men have nipples?" by Andrew M. Simons. Scientific American. Sept. 17, 2003. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-do-men-have-nipples

"Why do men have nipples?" by Cecil Adams. The Straight Dope. May 18, 1979. http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/85/why-do-men-have-nipples

"Why do men have nipples?" by Susan McCarthy. Salon. June 08, 1999. http://www.salon.com/health/feature/1999/06/08/nipples

Academic insights:

"Composition of breast fluid of a man with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinaemia" by Kulski, JK; Hartmann, PE; and Gutteridge, DH. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism. March 1981. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7462406

Topics in this Podcast: Anatomy, sex differences, Biology, Evolution, nipples, lactation