Are women more passive-aggressive?

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Sure, fine, whatever. What is passive aggression, and why is it associated stereotypically with women? Cristen and Caroline break down what passive aggression is, where it comes from and how it plays out among genders.

Episode Sources:

"What is passive aggressive behavior? What are some of the signs?"

"7 Reasons Why People Use Passive Aggressive Behavior"

"The Secrets to Handling Passive-Aggressive People"

"Oh, Fine, You're Right. I'm Passive-Aggressive"

"Women Evolved Indirect Aggression Strategy to Compete with One Another, Researcher Claims"

"The Secret to Dealing with Passive-Aggressive People"

Academic Insights:

"Passive-aggression: A Guide for the Therapist, the Patient, and the Victim." Martin Kantor. 2002.

"A Comparison of Passive-Aggressive and Negativistic Personality Disorders." Christopher J. Hopwood and Aidan G.C. Wright. Journal of Personality Assessment. May 2012.

"Family Treatment of Passive-Aggressive (Negativistic) Personality Disorder." Jon Carlson et al. Family Treatment of Personality Disorders: Advances in Clinical Practice. Malcolm M. Macfarlane, ed. 2013.

"The Construct Validity of Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder." Christopher J. Hopwood et al. Psychiatry. Fall 2009.

"Anger across the gender divide." Melissa Dittmann. Monitor on Psychology. March 2003.

"Gender Differences in Subtypes of Workplace Aggression." Zhiqing Zhou. University of South Florida Scholar Commons. January 2012.

Topics in this Podcast: gender, health, pop culture, Biology, Mental Health